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Plant Focus

Quercus macdougallii
A rare oak endemic to the Sierra Juárez in Oaxaca

The Iturraran Botanical Garden

The Iturraran Botanical Garden extends along the slopes of the Iturraran hill, in the foothills of Mount Pagoeta, within the Natural Park of the same name. Its surface area is about 25 hectares and within it are some groves of native vegetation, especially mixed hardwood forest, with Quercus robur as the dominant species. It is located in the municipal area of Aia, Province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, northern Spain, and is owned by the regional government, the Provincial Council of Gipuzkoa. It is located 25.5 km from Donostia-San Sebastián, 7.5 km from Zarautz and 90 km from Bilbao. It is part of the pre-coastal topography of Gipuzkoa. It has a network of 5 km of roads and its altitude is between 120 and 210 m.

A view of the Iturraran Botanical Garden, with the old farmhouse that houses the office of Pagoeta Natural Park

The weather is mild, with temperatures softened by the marine influence, but occasionally 40 ºC can be reached on days with south wind, mainly during summer. Winter temperatures rarely drop below –5 ºC, frosty days are very scarce and snow is rare. The last time the temperature dropped below 0 ºC was on February 28, 2018, the only day we had frost that winter.

Average annual rainfall ranges between 1500 and 1800 mm. The soil is predominantly clay, with a neutral pH, despite the fact that the base rock is limestone. The soils are heavily washed by precipitation.

The name Iturraran is pronounced Ee-too-rah-RAHN, with emphasis on the last syllable. There is no written accent on that syllable, which would normally be the case in Spanish, because it is a Basque name and accents are not used in Basque. The origin is unclear, but it refers to a fountain (iturri).

The first plantations at the Iturraran Botanical Garden date from winter 1986/87. At that time the land where the Botanical Garden stands were the pasture meadows of the Iturraran farmhouse, mowed every year to make fodder for cattle. The farmhouse, dating to the 18th century, had been acquired a few years earlier by the Provincial Council of Gipuzkoa (regional government of the Basque Country province) so as to install in it the offices of the Pagoeta Natural Park.

An aerial view of the Iturraran Botanical Garden

At first it was simply ornamental plantations, focusing on deciduous trees and shrubs with good autumn colors. Later it was decided to make an arboretum or botanical garden. In principle it was divided into 8 areas, in each of which a certain family of plants had a leading role. Thus area 1 was for Fagaceae, area 2 for Sapindaceae, area 3 for Leguminosae, area 4 for plants of Mediterranean climates, area 5 for Juglandaceae and other families, area 6 for Rosaceae, area 7 was a native oak forest (Quercus robur), and area 8 was for Gymnosperms.

Later plantings deviated from that distribution to a certain extent, as it has been necessary to distribute different species in the most convenient area for their needs, according to type of soil, exposure or slope. For example, a Quercus from Colombia could not be planted in the same area as one from northern Japan.

I have had the pleasure of managing the Botanical Garden from its beginnings until my retirement in 2012. Many of the Quercus species and some other genera have been collected by me on different trips through Mexico and Central America. At the moment I still dedicate a couple of days a week to supervising the Garden.

The native Quercus robur forest at the Iturraran Botanical Garden, in spring

With the exception of the Fagaceae, which we will deal with later, the main collections are:

Lauraceae, with around 100 species belonging to 15 genera: Apollonias, Beilschmiedia, Cinnamomum, Cryptocarya, Laurus, Lindera, Machilus, Nectandra, Neolitsea, Nothaphoebe, Ocotea, Persea, Phoebe, Sassafras, Umbellularia.

Sapindaceae, with about 200 species and cultivars, belonging to 7 genera: Acer, Alectryon, Dipteronia, Dodonaea, Koelreuteria, Sapindus, Xanthoceras.

Gymnosperms, with 263 species belonging to the families Araucariaceae (7 species of 3 genera), Pinaceae (148 species of 9 genera), Podocarpaceae (33 species of 11 genera), Cupressaceae (57 species of 19 genera), Sciadopityaceae (1 species of 1 genus) and Taxaceae (14 species of 3 genera).

Nothofagaceae, with 13 species from Chile, New Zealand and Australia.

Fagaceae constitute the main collection of the Iturraran Botanical Garden. Five genera are represented: Castanea (7 species), Castanopsis (12 species), Fagus (10 species), Lithocarpus (16 species), and Quercus (around 300 species).

The most interesting in our collection are the Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, and Quercus genera (in the latter, particularly the species from Mexíco and Central America and those of the Asian section Cyclobalanopsis)They are listed and mostly illustrated below. Selected images of plants from other genera and families can be found at the end of this article.

Castanopsis is a genus of the Fagaceae that has about 140 species, all of them from tropical and subtropical Asia, all of them typical components of the cloud forest. Many of these species had been included in the genus Quercus. They are evergreen trees, with leaves with a whole margin or, sometimes, serrated. Inflorescences usually unisexual, erect, in spikes or in panicles; the masculine flowers grouped in fascicles of 3–7, rarely solitary; female flowers solitary or in groups of 3–7 per cupule. The solitary cupules, rarely indehiscent, totally or partially covering the nuts; nuts 1–3 per cupule.

Castanopsis species are rarely seen in botanical collections. In Iturraran we can find:

C. carlesii
Castanopsis carlesii (Hemsl.) Hayata (Quercus carlesii Hemsl.), from central and western China, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

Castanopsis cuspidata (Thunb.) Schottky (Quercus cuspidata Thunb.), from Japan and Korea.

Castanopsis delavayi Franch., from central and southeast China.

Castanopsis eyrei (Champ. ex Benth.) Hutch. (Quercus eyrei Champ. ex Benth.), from central and eastern China and Taiwan.

C. fissa
Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehder & E.H.Wilson (Quercus fissa Champ. ex Benth.), from southeastern China Laos, Thailand and Vietnam.
C. indica
Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC. (Quercus indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) Drake, southern China, Assam, Bangladesh, Eastern Himalayas, Laos, Burma, Nepal, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam.

Castanopsis sclerophylla (Lindl. & Paxton) Schottky (Quercus sclerophylla Lindl. & Paxt.), from south-central and south-eastern China.

Castanopsis sieboldii (Makino) Hatus., from Korea and Japan.

C. sp.
Castanopsis sp. from Myanmar.

Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A.DC. (Quercus tribuloides Sm), from Assam, Bangladesh, south-central China, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya.

We also have three other unidentified species from Vietnam.

Lithocarpus is another exclusively Asian genus of the Fagaceae family and like Castanopsis very rare in botanical collections, many of its species were previously considered to belong to genus Quercus. They are trees, sometimes shrubs, evergreen. The inflorescences are more or less erect, they can be male, female, or with male and female flowers. The male ones are erect, simple or branched, with 3–7 flowers. The female flowers are solitary or in groups of 1-}–3. The cupules are grouped in cymes on the rachis of the inflorescence, many of them abort before maturity, totally or partially covering the nut, only one nut per cup. There are approximately 340 recognized species. They can be found in Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, north-central China, south-central China, south-eastern China, East Himalaya, Hainan, Japan, Java, Laos, Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam.

The following grow in Iturraran:

Lithocarpus corneus (Lour.) Rehder (Quercus cornea Lour.) from south-central China, south-eastern China, Hainan, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

L. craibianus
Lithocarpus craibianus Barnett, from south-central China, Laos, Thailand.
L. dealbatus

Lithocarpus dealbatus (Hook.f. & Thomson ex Miq.) Rehder (Quercus dealbata Hook f. & Thompson ex Miq.), from Assam, Bangladesh, south-central China, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam.
L. edulis
Lithocarpus edulis (Makino) Nakai (Quercus edulis Makino), from Japan.
L. elegans
Lithocarpus elegans (Blume) Hatus. ex Soepadmo (Quercus elegans Blume), from Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, south-central China, East Himalaya, Java, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam.

Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) Nakai (Quercus glabra Thunb.), from south-central China, south-eastern China, Japan, Taiwan.

L. hancei
Lithocarpus hancei (Benth.) Rehder (Quercus hancei Benth.), from south-central China, south-eastern China, Taiwan.

Lithocarpus harlandii (Hance ex Walp.) Rehder (Quercus harlandii Hance ex Walp.), from south-central China, south-eastern China, Taiwan.

Lithocarpus henryi (Seemen) Rehder & E.H. Wilson (Quercus henryi Seemen), from north-central China, south-central China, south-eastern China.

L. kawakami
Lithocarpus kawakamii (Hayata) Hayata (Quercus kawakamii Hayata), from Taiwan.

Lithocarpus konishii (Hayata) Hayata (Quercus konishii Hayata), from Taiwan and Hainan (China).

L. lepidocarpus
Lithocarpus lepidocarpus Hayata (Quercus lepidocarpa Hayata), from Taiwan.

Lithocarpus litseifolius (Hance) Chum (Quercus litseifolia Hance), from Assam, south-central China, south-eastern China, Hainan, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam.

Lithocarpus pachyphyllus (Kurz) Rehder var. pachyphyllus (Quercus pachyphylla Kurz), from Assam, Bangladesh, south-central China, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Tibet.

L. pachyphyllus
Lithocarpus pachyphyllus var. fruticosus (Watt ex King) A. Camus, from south-central China, Myanmar.

Lithocarpus shinsuiensis Hayata, from Taiwan.

There are also other unidentified species, from Burma and Vietnam.  

Quercus is the genus best represented in the Iturraran Botanical Garden, with some 300 species and many hybrids. The vast majority of species from Europe, North America and Asia are represented (excluding section Cyclobalanopsis), for this reason we cannot speak extensively about this genus and we will limit ourselves to the Cyclobalanopsis species and the Quercus of Mexico and Central America.

Cyclobalanopsis is currently considered to be a section in subgenus Cerris, although Flora of China treats it as a separate genus. They are evergreen trees and sometimes shrubs, with about 150 species from tropical and subtropical Asia, due to their origin they are thought to be not very rustic and are found in few collections. In Iturraran we can find the following species:

Q. acuta
Quercus acuta Thunb., from south-eastern China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan.
Q. lineata
Quercus brandisiana (?) Kurz, from Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Hainan, Java, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam
Q. gilva
Quercus gilva Blume, from south-central China, south-eastern China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan.
Q. glauca
Quercus glauca Thunb. from Assam, north-central China, south-central China, south-eastern China, East Himalaya, Hainan, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya.
Q. hypargyrea
Quercus hypargyrea (Seemen ex Diels) C.C. Huang & Y.T. Chang, from south-central China, south-eastern China
Q. kiukiangensi
Quercus kiukiangensis (Y.T. Chang) Y.T. Chang, from south-central China, Tibet.
Q. lamellosa
Quercus lamellosa Sm., from Assam, south-central China, south-eastern China, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Tibet.
Q. morii
Quercus morii Hayata, from Taiwan.
Q. myrsinifolia
Quercus myrsinifolia Blume, from north-central China, south-central China, south-eastern China, Hainan, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.
Q. oxyodon
Quercus oxyodon Miq., from Assam, Bangladesh, north-central China, south-central China, south-eastern China, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam
Q. pachyloma
Quercus pachyloma Seemen, from south-central China, south-eastern China, Taiwan.
Q. pentacycla
Quercus pentacycla Y. T. Chang, from south-central China.
Q. poilanei
Quercus poilanei Hickel & A. Camus, south-eastern China, Thailand, Vietnam.
Q. salicina
Quercus salicina Blume, from Japan, Korea.
Q. schottkyana
Quercus schottkyana Rehder & E. H. Wilson, from south-central China.
Q. sessilifolia
Quercus sessilifolia Blume, from south-central China, south-eastern China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand.
Q. stenophylloides
Quercus stenophylloides Hayata, from Taiwan.
Q. tatakaensis
Quercus tatakaensis Tomiya, from Taiwan.


Q. thomsoniana
Quercus thomsoniana A. DC., from Bangladesh, East Himalaya.
Quercus from Mexico and Central America

They are the specialty of the Iturraran Botanical Garden, with many species that are practically not grown in any other collection.

Q. acatenangensis
Quercus acatenangensis Trel., from El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas).
Q. acherdophylla
Quercus acherdophylla Trel., from Mexico (Hidalgo, Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca).
Q. aculcingensis
Quercus aculcingensis Trel., from Mexico (Veracruz).
Q. acutifolia
Quercus acutifolia Née, from southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras.
Q. affinis
Quercus affinis Scheidw., from Mexico.
Q. alpescens
Quercus alpescens Trel., from Mexico (Nuevo León, Hidalgo).
Q. ariifolia
Quercus ariifolia Trel., from Mexico (from Nuevo León to Puebla).
Q. arzonica
Quercus arizonica Sarg., from northern Mexico and the United States (New Mexico, Texas, Arizona).
Q. barrancana
Quercus barrancana Spellenb., Mexico (Chihuahua).
Q. boqueronae
Quercus boqueronae Trel., from El Salvador.
Q. brenesii
Quercus brenesii Trel., from Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
Q. bumelioides
Quercus bumelioides Liebm., from Costa Rica and Panama.
Q. calophylla
Quercus calophylla Schltdl. & Cham., from Mexico and Guatemala.
Q. canbyi
Quercus canbyi Trel., from Northeast Mexico and Texas.
Q. clivicola
Quercus clivicola Trel. & C.H. Muller, from northern Mexico.
Q. coffeicolor
Quercus coffeicolor Trel., from Mexico (Sinaloa, Jalisco, Nayarit).
Q. conzattii
Quercus conzattii Trel., from Mexico (from Durango to Oaxaca).
Q. corrugata
Quercus corrugata Hook., from Mexico (Puebla) to Panama.
Q. cortesii
Quercus cortesii Liebm., from central Mexico to Guatemala.
Q. costaricensis
Quercus costaricensis Liebm., from Costa Rica and Panama.
Q. crassifolia
Quercus crassifolia Bonpl., from Mexico and Guatemala.
Q. crassipes
Quercus crassipes Bonpl., from central and southern Mexico.
Q. crispipilis
Quercus crispipilis Trel., from Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala.
Q. cupreata
Quercus cupreata Trel. & C.H. Muller, from Mexico (Nuevo León).
Q. delgadoana
Quercus delgadoana S. Valencia, Nixon & L.M. Kelly, from Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz).
Q. deserticola
Quercus deserticola Trel., from Mexico (from Sinaloa to Oaxaca).
Q. diversifolia
Quercus diversifolia Née, from Mexico (Nuevo León, Durango, State of Mexico and Puebla).
Q. durifolia
Quercus durifolia Seemen ex. Loes., from northern Mexico.
Q. xdysophylla
Quercus ×dysophylla Benth., from Mexico.
Q. elliptica
Quercus elliptica Née, from México to Central America.
Q. eomoryi
Quercus emoryi Torr., from northern Mexico and the United States (Arizona, Texas, New Mexico).
Q. euginiifolia
Quercus eugeniifolia Liebm., from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Panama.
Q. furfuracea
Quercus furfuracea Liebm., from Mexico (Puebla and San Luis Potosí).
Q. fusiformis
Quercus fusiformis Small, from Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas) and the United States (Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico).
Q. germana
Quercus germana Schltdl. & Cham., from Mexico (Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Potosí, Tamaulipas and Veracruz).
Q- ghiesbreghtii x sartorii
Quercus ghiesbreghtii × sartorii, from Mexico (Veracruz).
Q. glabrescens
Quercus glabrescens Benth., from Mexico (from Hidalgo to Veracruz and Oaxaca).
Q. glaucescens
Quercus glaucescens Bonpl., from Mexico (Michoacan, Oaxaca. Mexico, Nayarit, Veracruz, Guerrero and Sinaloa).
Q. glacucoides
Quercus glaucoides M. Martens & Galeotti, from Mexico (from Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla in the south to Sinaloa in the northwest).
Q. grahamii
Quercus grahamii Benth., from Mexico (central and southwest).
Q. greggii
Quercus greggii (A. DC.) Trel., from Mexico (Coahuila to Oaxaca).
Q. guliellmi-treleasei
Quercus gulielmi-treleasei C.H. Muller, from Costa Rica and Panama.
Q. hintonii
Quercus hintonii E.F. Warb., from Mexico (State of Mexico).
Q. hintoniorum
Quercus hintoniorum Nixon & C.H. Muller, from Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León).
Q. hirtifolia
Quercus hirtifolia M.L. Vázquez, S. Valencia & Nixon, from Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla).
Q. humboldtii
Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., from Colombia and Panama.
Q. hypoleucoides
Quercus hypoleucoides A. Camus, from Mexico (north) and the United States (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona).
Q. hypoxantha
Quercus hypoxantha Trel., from Mexico (Northeast).
Q. insignis
Quercus insignis M. Martens & Galeotti, from central Mexico to Costa Rica.
Q. invaginata
Quercus invaginata Trel., Mexico (from Chihuahua to Coahuila and Nuevo León).
Q. jonesii
Quercus jonesii Trel., from Mexico (from Chihuahua, Sonora and Durango to Oaxaca).
Q. laceyi
Quercus laceyi Small, from Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León) and the United States (Texas).
Q. laeta
Quercus laeta Liebm., from almost all of Mexico.
Q. lancifolia
Quercus lancifolia Schltdl. & Cham., from Mexico to Guatemala.
Q. laurina
Quercus laurina Bonpl., from Mexico to Guatemala.
Q. liebmannii
Quercus liebmannii Oerst. ex Trel., from Mexico (State of Mexico, Oaxaca).
Q. macdougalii
Quercus macdougallii Martinez, from Mexico (Oaxaca).
Q. magnoliifolia
Quercus magnoliifolia Née, from Mexico.
Q. martinezii
Quercus martinezii C.H. Muller, from Mexico (Chiapas, Jalisco, state of Mexico, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca and Guerrero).
Q. macvaughii
Quercus mcvaughii Spellenb., from Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango).
Q. mexicana
Quercus mexicana Bonpl., from Mexico.
Q. microphylla
Quercus microphylla Née, from central Mexico.
Q. miquihuanensis
Quercus miquihuanensis Nixon & C.H. Muller, from Mexico (Tamaulipas, Nuevo León).
Q. muehlenbergii
Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm., from Ontario (Canada) to Veracruz (Mexico).
Q. obtusata
Quercus obtusata Bonpl., Mexico (center and south).
Q. ocoteifolia
Quercus ocoteifolia Liebm., from Central America.
Q. oleoides var. oleoides
Quercus oleoides Schltdl. & Cham. var. oleoides, from Mexico to Nicaragua.
Q. oleoides var. australis
Quercus oleoides var. australis Trel., from Costa Rica.
Q. oocarpa
Quercus oocarpa Liebm., from southern Mexico to Panama.
Q. peduncularis
Quercus peduncularis Née, from central Mexico to Honduras.
Q. pinnativenulosa
Quercus pinnativenulosa C.H. Muller, from Mexico (from Veracruz to Oaxaca).
Q. planipocula
Quercus planipocula Trel., from Mexico (east, from Sinaloa to Oaxaca).
Q. polymorpha
Quercus polymorpha Schltdl. & Cham., from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, United States (Texas).
Q. praeco
Quercus praeco Trel., from Mexico (Zacatecas, Jalisco, Nayarit).
Q. rapurahuensis
Quercus rapurahuensis Pittier ex Trel., from Costa Rica and Panama.
Q. resinosa
Quercus resinosa Liebm., from Mexico (NE to SW).
Q. rugosa
Quercus rugosa Née, from Arizona and Texas to Honduras.
Q. rysophylla
Quercus rysophylla Weath., from Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí).
Q. cubana
Quercus sagrana Nutt., from Cuba.
Q. sapotifolia
Quercus sapotifolia Liebm., from Mexico (Hidalgo to Chiapas) to Central America.
Q. sartorii
Quercus sartorii Liebm., from Mexico (Tamaulipas to Oaxaca).
Q. scytophylla
Quercus scytophylla Liebm., from Mexico (Michoacan, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Durango, Chihuahua and Sinaloa).
Q. sebifera
Quercus sebifera Trel., from Mexico (center and east).
Q. seemannii
Quercus seemannii Liebm., from Central America.
Q. segoviensis
Quercus segoviensis Liebm., from Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas) to Nicaragua.
Q. sideroxyla
Quercus sideroxyla Bonpl., from Mexico (Sonora to Chihuahua, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, and Guanajuato).
Q. sinuata var. breviloba
Quercus sinuata var. breviloba (Torr.) C.H. Muller, from NE Mexico to Oklahoma (United States).
Q. skinneri
Quercus skinneri Benth., from Mexico to Honduras.
Q. striatula
Quercus striatula Trel., from NW Mexico.
Q. tarahumara
Quercus tarahumara Spellenb., J.D.Bacon & Breedlove, from Mexico (Sinaloa, Durango, Sonora, Chihuahua).
Q. meavei
Quercus trichodonta (?) Trel., from Mexico to Honduras.
Q. trinitatis
Quercus trinitatis Trel., from Mexico (from Hidalgo to Oaxaca).
Q. trinitatis
Quercus tristis Liebm., from southern Mexico to Guatemala.
Q. tuberculata
Quercus tuberculata Liebm., from the North and West of Mexico.
Q. urbanii
Quercus urbani Trel., from the C and W of Mexico.
Q. uxoris
Quercus uxoris McVaugh, from Mexico (from Aguascalientes to Guerrero and Oaxaca).
Q. vicentensis
Quercus vicentensis Trel., from Mexico (Chiapas) to Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador.
Q. viminea
Quercus viminea Trel., from the North and West of Mexico and Arizona (United States).
Q. xalapensis
Quercus xalapensis Bonpl., from South and East-Central México.

Selected images from other genera and families:


Cinnamomum bodinieri
Cinnamomum bodinieri
Cinnamomum chekiangensis
Cinnamomum chekiangensis
Machilus thunbergii
Machilus thunbergii
 Neolitsea sericea
Neolitsea sericea
Ocotea foetens
Ocotea foetens
Persea borbonia
Persea borbonia
Phoebe chekiangensis
Phoebe chekiangensis
Sassafras tzumu
Sassafras tzumu


Sapindaceae Acer caudatifolium
Acer caudatifolium
Sapindaceae Acer elegantulum
Acer elegantulum
Sapindaceae Acer laevigatum
Acer laevigatum
Sapindaceae Acer lucidum
Acer lucidum
Sapindaceae Acer oblongum
Acer oblongum
Sapindaceae Acer paxii
Acer paxii
Sapindaceae Acer sinense
Acer sinense
Sapindaceae Acer tonkinense
Acer tonkinense
Sapindaceae Alectryon excelsus
Alectryon excelsus
Sapindaceae Koelreuteria bipinnata
Koelreuteria bipinnata
Sapindus mukorossii
Sapindus mukorossi


Gimnospermas Abies pinsapo
Abies pinsapo
Gimnospermas Cunninghamia lanceolata
Cunninghamia lanceolata
Gimnospermas Picea glehnii
Picea glehnii
Gimnospermas Pinus tecunumanii
Pinus tecunumanii
Tetraclinis articulata
Tetraclinis articulata
Umbellularia californica
Umbellularia californica
Wollemia nobilis
Wollemia nobilis


Nothofagus cunninghamii
Nothofagus cunninghamii
Nothofagus moorei
Nothofagus moorei


Fagaceae Castanea henryi
Castanea henryi
Fagaceae Castanea ozarkensis
Castanea ozarkensis
Fagus lucida
Fagus lucida
Fagus mexicana
Fagus mexicana
Notholithocarpus densiflorus
Notholithocarpus densiflorus